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August 21, 2018             home page






On People Mobility in "the State for the People"

by Kiryl Kascian

Prior to the third Eastern Partnership summit scheduled for November in Vilnius the EaP region has drawn significant international attention. The expected signing of the association package between the EU and Ukraine induces a quite nervous reaction from Moscow that attempts to pull Ukraine into the Customs Union with subsequent Russia-centric political alignment and advancement of economic ties. Such a reaction may be explained by the approach that has always dominated Russian politics towards ex-USSR countries after 1991 and became even more pronounced after Putin became Russian president for the first time. Within this approach, Russia sees itself as a natural and the only geopolitical center and leader of the post-Soviet space. Therefore, any attempts of other states or formations to take role of integration centers in the post-Soviet space would be interpreted by the Kremlin as an intrusion into its semi-domestic affairs and induce a certain degree of counter-actions to bring an “insurgent” country into Russia’s sphere of gravity. In other words, the recent stance of Moscow towards Kyiv proves that Russia is trying to convince Ukraine take the path Belarus has been following for number of years.

It should be recalled that the idea of EaP without Russia’s participation as a partner may be interpreted as the first real attempt of the EU to view Belarus and five other partner countries outside the context of the Russian sphere of interests. Even though the EaP countries are treated by the EU on a case-by-case basis, the formalization of their relations with the EU embodied in the EaP may be regarded as the real understanding of the importance of each of these countries for the EU that came only in some 18 years after all six countries appeared in the political map.

Indeed, the EU intentions to enhance cooperation with the EaP countries may be revealed in order to help these countries to transform themselves so that they comply with the EU standards for the terms “security”, “stability”, and “prosperity”. This is thought to be accompanied by “easier travel to the EU through gradual visa liberalization”. However, the matter of visa liberalization brings many challenges since the EU:

  • deals with it on a case-by-case basis,
  • considers this measure a long-term goal and
  • requires “conditions for a well managed and secure mobility”.

What challenges can this situation bring to Belarus assumimg its authorities are reluctant to maintain a comprehensive dialogue on visa liberalization? What role could Russia play since its authorities are actively conducting such a dialogue? Citizens of Belarus are now subjected to a simplified procedures for obtaining Russian citizenship; Russia has been following the practice of granting its citizenship to residents of some post-Soviet territories on a massive scale.

For a number of consequent years Belarus has claimed to be the “world champion” regarding the issue of Schengen visas per 1000  of its citizens. This fact can neither be explained  by an interest of Belarus’ citizens in the EU mechanisms and policies, nor by their geopolitical preference. It rather illustrates quite a pragmatic interest of Belarusians in visiting the EU, be it on business activities, family issues or private trips. At the same time, citizens of Russia, Ukraine or Moldova not only pay less for Schengen visas but are also subjected to much more relaxed conditions for their obtaining. Therefore, it is also questionable whether the quantitative effect of the Schengen visas in Belarusian case  will bring qualitative results, i.e. whether this world’s  highest number of Schengen visas per person can be transformed into the increase of international and interregional contacts’ effectiveness in business, culture, civic society and all other relevant spheres of life. It can be hardly applied to Belarus and its current political situation. Such status quo not only devaluates Belarus’ “championship”, but also shows possible challenges Belarus may face.

The existing challenge for the unwillingness of the Belarusian authorities to facilitate the dialogue on visa liberalization may be described on basis of the Polish Card (in Polish: Karta Polaka). It was introduced in 2007 and confirms that its holder is a member of the Polish nation. Even though the Polish Card  entitles its holder with neither the residence permit, nor entry permit, it does ensure its holder preferential treatment by the Polish state, including the process of  obtaining visas. The most interesting issue here is not the negative reaction of Belarusian authorities but the discrepancy in the numbers of ethnic Poles living in Belarus provided by Belarus’ official census (294,549 as of 2011) and by Polish authorities (ca. 900,000 people of Polish descent who live in Belarus). And even though the notions ethnicity and ethnic descent differ in their substance, it is likely that the number of people who declared themselves Belarusians during the national census but applied for the Polish Card will grow. In most cases it will not mean a change of ethnic affiliation but rather a pragmatic adjustment by individuals to the current situation. A better option is sought by means of using additional opportunities granted by the Polish state.

For a number of years Russia is consequently striving to maintain a visa-free regime with the EU for short-term visits. This situation has developed quite slowly, but the one thing is obvious – Russian authorities have eloquently declared their readiness to make this process possible. And contrary to their Belarusian counterparts, Russian authorities do declare interest in the facilitation of people’s mobility — making thereby the Russian presence and interests in Europe growing and visible. This applies not only to the visa facilitation dialogue with the EU, but also to Israel, Argentina, Brazil and a number of other countries. Therefore, it could be concluded that a holder of the Russian passport could have somewhat more opportunities for foreign visa-free travel than a holder of the Belarusian one. Moreover, a holder of the same Russian passport may live in Belarus and enjoy nearly the same scope of rights and protection as the holder of Belarusian one.

Before proceeding to reveal what it means for Belarus under the existing status quo, three aspects should be recalled. First, Belarusian citizens are subjected to a simplified procedure for obtaining Russian citizenship. Second, there is a significant number of Belarusian citizens permanently or temporarily  working in Russia. Third, despite lack of permanent border control between Belarus and Russia and the existence on paper of the so-called “union state”, in each case Russian authorities negotiate visa abolishing or facilitation only for their citizens and therefore not burden themselves with the work that Belarusian Foreign Ministry should do itself.

A number of scenarios is to be expected. The determining factor for depicting these scenarios is timing, i.e. it is important not how the visa facilitation is taking place, but when (and if at all) it will be turned into a visa-free regime. So, if the visa regime is abolished both for Belarus (alone or as a part of the EaP initiative) and for Russia at the same time in  a short period of time passing between two these events , nothing will change in the existing status quo. If the visa regime with the EU is to be abolished for Belarus (alone or as a part of the EaP initiative) earlier than that for Russia, it would require the reintroduction of regular border control at the border between Belarus and Russia. Most likely it will cause an ardent politically motivated campaign by the Kremlin, criticizing Belarus of not fulfilling  the obligations taken by the official Minsk under a number of integration projects orchestrated by Russia. In their substance it would resemble the recent stance of Moscow towards Kyiv. But the most dangerous scenario would result if the visa regime with the EU is abolished for Russia significantly earlier than for Belarus (alone or as a part of the EaP initiative). The uncontrolled border between Belarus and Russia is not as important here. The most important thing is that Belarusian citizens are subjected to a simplified procedure for obtaining Russian citizenship. And here it is likely to expect a pragmatic adjustment of a considerable portion of individual Belarusian citizens to the current situation, similar to that observed with  the implementation of the Polish Card but on a significantly wider scale. It will first concern the category of formally still Belarusian citizens who permanently or temporarily live and work in Russia. For them it will be more convenient to obtain Russian citizenship just for the purpose of avoiding much additional bureaucracy concerning their business and private travels. Further potentially affected categories include,  for instance,  those Belarusian citizens with close relatives who are Russian citizens, or those who obtained their education in Russia. It is unlikely to predict how large  is the category of people who would opt for Russian citizenship in all these cases, but it is definitely significantly larger than the estimated number of potential holders of the Polish Card. Again, in most cases the choice for Russian citizenship would be potentially determined not by the Russian ethnicity or descent or Russo-centric worldview but by the pragmatic choice to exploit more convenient and less bureaucratic options to achieve own goals. In any case, however, such a trend poses a threat  for national security and stability in the Belarusian society - so highly cherished by the official Minsk. At the same time, it could be reasonable for the Belarusian MFA to begin  being at least as effective as their Russian counterparts in facilitation  of its citizens’ mobility and thereby put at least a little meaning into the naked slogan “the state for the people” promoted by the official Minsk.

This article appeared in Belarusian Review, Vol. 25, No. 3.
© 2013 The_Point Journal/Belarusian Review

Keywords: Eastern Partnership, visa liberalization, Belarus-EU relations, Belarus-Russia relations, Russia's compatriot policy, Russia-EU relations, post-Soviet alliances, Polish Charter




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Belarusians officially recognized as national minority in the Czech Republic

In 2010, at the beginning of our campaign for the recognition of Belarusians as a national minority in the Czech Republic, our exclusive goal was to achieve this result. Earlier attempts by representatives of the local Belarusian community did not go beyond talks with individual representatives of the Czech political  society; they were often told that their chances of  achieving this result are  very small, and  that, in general, the issue is too complicated.  Taking into account this experience,  the Belarusian  community has  decided to tackle the issue of recognition from a different angle: by first analyzing the Czech laws on requirements for the official recognition of a national minority, in order to determine Belarusians’ realistic chances, — and, on basis of this analysis,  by mapping out a new strategy of action.

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Brave policy thinking: the time is now

The uneventfulness of the last several months could not have been but disappointing for anyone hoping to see the political prisoners in Belarus freed soon, and the current efforts to that end vindicated. A lack of closure to the post-December 2010 bout of political repressions means the pro-democratic community inside Belarus is still “bleeding”, as some of its most prominent figures and activists remain in jail, while others have been effectively forced out of public life or have had to leave the country. This brings home the question whether the current scope of the EU and US measures – intended primarily to discourage Lukashenka from brutality against his political opponents – has been quite adequate for the purpose.

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Time for a radical change in U.S. relations with Belarus

America’s Belarus policy since the mid-1990s has had little if any positive impact on the dictatorial regime of Alyaksandr Lukashenka. His autocratic regime has evolved into a particularly dictatorial and brutal one. The United States officially declared that the December, 2010, presidential election in Belarus was fatally flawed and that, consequently, Lukashenka is not the legitimate president of Belarus. He responded with the most brutal repression yet of Belarus’ democratic opposition.

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Valer Bulhakaŭ: Today ARCHE faces elementary issue of survival

On May 22, 2013 the minister of information Aleh Praliaskoŭski undersigned the certificate on the state registration of the periodical ”ARCHE. Pačatak.” Thus, after  months-long efforts, the periodical,  observing this year its 15th anniversary, was granted renewal of the registration. This means that from now on there are no  legal obstacles to publishing the paper version of  ARCHE. Valer Bulhakaŭ, the editor-in-chief of ARCHE, comments the fact of the registration renewal  for the Belarusian Review.

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From Chereya to Chicago - a memoir by Mikhail Mirkin

For a historian who really wants to recreate the past, it is not sufficient to know and understand the past era in question, nor is it sufficient for him or her to have a fertile imagination and the skills of a storyteller – there must also be documents and eyewitness accounts. Together these will create a picture that can persuade the general reader of the authenticity of the events described, and will contribute to the comprehension of the period that has never entirely disappeared, but continues to live on in the thoughts and feelings of the children and grandchildren of those who experienced it.

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The Spring 2013 issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

This year our journal celebrates its 25th anniversary. We would like to thank our editors-in-chief, Joe Arciuch and George Stankevich. We are also grateful to our editorial team, all our contributors, supporters and our most valuable readership.

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BNR Rada greetings to Belarusian Review

On behalf of the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic in Exile, I am pleased to congratulate the publishers, the editors, and the many authors who have contributed to the success of Belarusian Review since its foundation in 1988.

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Center for Belarusian Studies greetings to Belarusian Review

The Center for Belarusian Studies is pleased to offer its congratulations to Belarusian Review on the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary. This respected publication has become a fundamental resource for discourse about Belarus.

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Giving Voice: Center for Belarusian Studies White Paper Series

The Center for Belarusian Studies is pleased to announce a new initiative for 2013. In light of the increased censorship of those engaged in commenting about the status of civil society in Belarus, whether in higher education or in the media, the Center of Belarusian Studies would like to provide a location for the expression and the exchange of ideas as a way to encourage the presence of so many important voices in the public sphere. The Center invites submissions for publication on its website on topics relevant to the contemporary issues and past experiences that affect Belarus.

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Living with a Scent of Danger: European Adventures at the Fall of Communism - a memoir by Joanne Ivy Stankievich

Being bugged by Communist secret police on a trip behind the Iron Curtain and later living through the corrupt chaos of post-Communist Prague: these were but two of the many adventures Joanne recounts in this memoir. It covers the years 1988 - 2001 when she and her husband Walter (Viachka) lived in Munich, Prague and Florence. His work, related to his homeland of Belarus, included eight years as Director of the Belarus Service for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: while she searched for her own niche by developing a business in Italy, experiencing cultural differences, some humorous, some potentially dangerous

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Belarus' colonial legacy

The Western medias’ continue tendency to regard Belarus as a post-Soviet ”Russophone” country, with no language and culture of its own. This impression is intensified by the fact that the present Belarus’ president and the country’s leadership  prefer to use Russian in communicating with the country’s people.  Their choice seems to be politically motivated, since for most of them Belarusian is not a foreign language.

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Belarusian Institute of Arts and Sciences greetings to Belarusian Review

At the start of the 25th year of publication of Belarusian Review we sincerely congratulate you on such a remarkable achievement and express our gratitude to an impressive number of devoted contributors who have been informing the English speaking world about events and developments in Belarus

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NAABS greetings to Belarusian Review

The North American Association for Belarusian Studies would like to congratulate Belarusian Review on its 25th anniversary. Belarusian Review has served as a model of a popular journal that provides careful and objective information about Belarus, without hyperbole or acrimony.

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Belarusian ice hockey: spectator in Sochi

In short sport tournaments each single game is of essential importance. This was exactly what happened to the Belarus national ice hockey team during the Olympic qualification tournament in the deeply provincial Danish town of Vojens. In the very first game of the tournament Belarus lost 2-4 to Slovenia. The subsequent victory of the ex-Yugoslav nation against Denmark 2-1 supplied Slovenians with tickets to Sochi 2014 as winners of the qualification tournament in the Group F regardless of results of the third-day match when Slovenia was to meet the outsiders from Ukraine. Thus, the closing game of the tournament between Belarus and Denmark has turned into a friendly match instead of being the final battle of favorites.

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King Stakh’s Wild Hunt by Uladzimir Karatkevich in English

Glagoslav Publications is pleased to bring to your attention a special title, Belarusian cultural heritage, historical mystery with gothic elements King Stakh’s Wild Hunt by Uladzimir Karatkevich, published in English by Glagoslav Publications.

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Belarus in the Main Spanish Media (November - December 2012)

Belarus in the Main Spanish Media: November-December 2012 News Digest

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The Winter 2012 issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are proud to present our readers the Winter issue of the Belarusian Review in 2012!

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Ivonka Survilla on the Vilnius Memorandum

As President of the Rada, I have become well acquainted with the  challenges of representing a government in exile. Some of these challenges have much to do with the processes of government at the macro level: breaking through assumptions that dictate government policies and calling attention to the issues that affect  Belarus, its internal realities under Lukashenka, and its external potential in relation to the EU. Part of these challenges have to do with the nature of discourse about Belarus and how the producers of such discourse lose sight of the broad implications of political process and cooperation, thereby diffusing the potential diplomatic and practical effect of democratic efforts.

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Concluding Memorandum on Measures to Safeguard the Independence of Belarus (Vilnius Memorandum)

Concluding Memorandum of Consultative Meeting of Leaders of Belarusian Political and Civic Organisations and the President of the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic in Exile on Measures to Safeguard the Independence of Belarus.

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“Women in Politics” – a new educational publication about Belarus and the post-socialist space

A Belarusian women’s non-profit organization “ADLIGA – The International Centre for Gender initiatives: Women for Full Citizenship” is happy to announce this new publication. It is an educational feminist journal entitled “Women in Politics: New Approaches to the Political” – «Женщины в политике: Новые подоходы к политическому».

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Aliaksandr Milinkevich on the Vilnia Memorandum:

The Vilnia meeting was initiated by the BNR Rada, the holder of the statehood tradition and of moral values for the absolute majority of our democratic community.It is very important that almost all leaders of political opposition have signed the Memorandum.

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Uladzimir Baradach on the Vilnia Memorandum: ”A historical step made; another is needed, not less important”

On November 3, 2012, in Vilnia,  a unique meeting took place : the leadership of the Rada  BNR met with leaders of Belarus’political parties and civic organizations.

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Belarusian Studies: Underestimated Potential

Belarus can hardly be described as a country which attracts much attention from international scholars and analysts. Despite this fact all Belarus-related studies and analyses may roughly be described as those produced within a so-called “triadic nexus” that consists of Belarusian authors, foreign authors who focus on Belarus, and the authors who come from Belarusians living abroad, either from indigenous minorities in the neighboring countries or from Belarusian diasporas of migrant origin.

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Belarus in the main Spanish media, September 2012

A media digest of the main Spanish media on Belarus and Belarus-related issues in September 2012.

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The Fall 2012 issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are happy to present our readers the Fall issue of the Belarusian Review in 2012.

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Belarus in the Latvian Media (Summer 2012)

Traditionally in the Latvian media Belarus attracts less attention than, for example, the neighboring Russian Federation. The news topics which brought Belarus into the pages of Latvian media are sport (especially ice-hockey), politics (“teddy-bear attack”, plush toys toys which bore messages urging Belarus to respect human rights were dropped from a Swedish plane over Belarusian territory), economy and culture (topics are placed in the descending order).

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Belarus in the main Spanish media – media digest of the summer period

A media digest of the main Spanish media on Belarus and Belarus-related issues during the summer 2012 period.

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International recognition of Belarusian Lacinka

The participants of the Tenth Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names that took place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York between July 31st and August 10th, 2012 have approved the system of Roman alphabet transliteration of Belarusian geographical names proposed by the State Committee on Property of the Republic of Belarus.

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On Indetermination of Geopolitical Choice

Recent IISEPS poll results have become the bottom line for the editorial by Kirył Kaścian published in Belarus Review lately. Posing questions while leaving literally no room for any alternative options other than “either-or” choice reflects the principal flimsiness of many polls and geopolitical analyses on the post-Soviet space, be it journalist or academic inquiry. Irrespective of the origins of such analyses, most of them tend to operate with a Cold War style mind-sets.

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Simple Mathematics

I remember a math problem from my school years: how much time would it take Z to get from point A to point C, traveling through point B? This was quite a simple task, but one has to correctly consider the conditions given in order to get the proper answer. In other words, the correct answer depends on the configuration of points A, B, and C, the speed and other characteristics of Z, as well as other relevant factors. This association comes to mind when I see texts on the geopolitical choices of Belarus, attempting to discuss the apparent preferences of the Belarusian population and to measure pro-European sentiment in Belarus.

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The Summer 2012 issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are delighted to present our readers the Summer 2012 issue of the Belarusian Review.

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The Spring 2012 issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are happy to present our readers the first issue of the Belarusian Review in 2012.

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Lukashenka’s Grave Miscalculation

The EU’s relations with Belarus took its lowest point ever by the end of February 2012, when the EU countries recalled their ambassadors from Minsk in a diplomatic tit-for-tat. This time the Belarusian president seems to have miscalculated gravely if he expected to drive a wedge between Poland and the EU regarding their approaches to Belarus.

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Will the Prospective Eurasian Union Become a ’Lite’ Version of the USSR?

In recent years, Belarus and Kazakhstan are being further involved in the Russia-backed integration project known under labels of the Eurasian Economic Community, the Customs Union, the newly (re)created Common Economic Space and finally the prospective Eurasian Union. Leadership in all three countries considers this integration project as the most promising foreign policy initiative, though many observers and political commentators were less enthusiastic. What role is given to Belarus and Kazakhstan in this ambitious project and how do Lukashenka and Nazarbayev perceive it?

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Slovenia – Belarus: Sometimes Silence and Absence Are More Eloquent than Words

Slovenian foreign politics can be horribly wrong, was my thought when I heard about my country‘s decision to block the EU‘s move to include the Belarus tycoon Jury Čyž in the European black list.  As a journalist, and unlike many diplomats,  I can afford the luxury of being direct when it comes to injustice multiplied by political shortsightedness — for there are no other words for a situation when a man who has a dubious fame of  being Europe‘s last dictator‘s personal banker got away with a cozy contract of 100 mln euros with a Slovenian firm. Press agencies wrote that not without a little help from his Slovenian friends that man once again got himself the right to do business as usual, which includes not only traveling to the EU countries but also allegedly keeping his banking accounts in Western Europe.

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Belarus’ post-Soviet Alliances

Ukraine is trying to avoid following the Belarusian model of post-Soviet alignment which offers deep integration only with Russia. Unlike his Ukrainian colleagues, Aliaksandr Lukashenka has not managed to diversify his country’s alliance choices.

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Official Recognition of National Minorities in Czech Republic

Mutual relations between Belarusian and Czech peoples have a long history. One of most remarkable events in Belarus’ history is connected with Prague, where in 1517 the Belarusian humanist, Dr. Francišak Skaryna published the first Belarusian printed book — the Bible. Today all Belarusians are familiar with this fact. Later, in the 20th century, democratic Czechoslovakia was among first European countries to recognize Belarus’ independence, and offered refuge to the Belarusian government-in-exile. Despite these historically close ties the Belarusian community in the Czech Republic currently does not enjoy the status of an officially recognized National Minority.

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Assisting a Little-known Nation

After twenty years of its independence, Belarus can hardly be characterized as a well-known country in the world. Indeed, many people do know that such a country exists, and many can name certain events, people or sport teams that are associated in their minds with Belarus. Probably the most internationally known Belarusian “brands” are Chornobyl and Lukašenka.

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First International Congress of Belarusian Studies in Kaunas

On September 23-25, 2011 Lithuanian Kaunas hosted about 200 participants from 14 countries who gathered to take part in the First International Congress of Belarusian Studies.

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The SUMMER issue of the BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are proud to present to the readers the second issue of the “Belarusian Review” in 2011.

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The Three Wounds of Belarus

Major international attention was directed toward Belarus after the December 2010 elections, primarily in connection with the imprisonment of ex-candidates for the presidency and participants in the protest rally on December 19, 2011. Throughout the winter Belarus suffered the consequences of the post-election events. Spring, however, did not bring any relief. While commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Čarnobyl disaster and on the eve of the 70th anniversary of the end of the Nazi occupation during the WWII, Belarus faced an unexpected and terrible bomb explosion in the center of usually peaceful and safe Minsk.

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BELARUSIAN REVIEW needs your help!

“Belarusian Review” is the only journal in English language fully devoted to Belarus: its current political and economic situation, culture and history, as well as to Belarusian diaspora. “Belarusian Review” fully fills this niche, both as a printed journal and an electronic edition made in cooperation with “The_Point Journal”. Today “Belarusian Review” needs your help. The journal lives on money coming from subscribers and donations. Subscription cannot always cover all the costs; therefore your financial assistance is needed. Any donation will be useful and will go to a good cause.

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The consequences of the Treaty of Riga (1921) – conference in Biełastok

The consequences of the Treaty of Riga (1921) for the Central and Eastern Europe’s political and military history were the main focus of the international conference that took place in Biełastok on April 28-29, 2011.

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Chornobyl – 25 years

Last week, 26 April 2011, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine commemorated a sad anniversary – 25 years since the Chornobyl disaster.

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The spring 2011 issue of BELARUSIAN REVIEW is out!

We are proud to present to the readers the first issue of the “Belarusian Review” in 2011.

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Imprisoned Freedom

The Freedom Day celebration in Minsk ended with imprisonment of 70 persons. The opposition in Minsk failed to stage the traditional joint rally.

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Dashed dreams on the Christams eve

For some in Belarus, the end of 2010 crushed their hopes for change; for others, it proved that nothing can threaten Belarusian stability.

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Time for Policy Shift

The years of Western attempts to develop meaningful engagement with the dictatorship in Belarus ended with a period of liberalization prior to the presidential election in December 2010. This period was marked by the government’s rather tolerant attitude toward the opposing candidates during the registration process; and the campaign itself was relatively unimpeded. The liberalization, however, ended immediately after the closing of the polls and the announcement of results with a brutal dispersion of tens of thousands of peaceful demonstrators protesting yet another stolen election.

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Francišak Bahuševič honored in Vilnia

On September 17 a memorial plaque of Francišak Bahusevič, the father of the modern Belarusian literature, was unveiled in Vilnia. The opening was timed to the 170th anniversary of Bahisevič’s birthday, who was a native of the Vilnia region.

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Belarus-Russia: Battle is won but is the war over?

The highly discussed situation on the new vintage of the Belarus-Russia gas war was finally solved. Belarus had paid its debt to Russia USD 187 million for gas, while Russia paid Belarus USD 228 million for the transit. The gas supply to the EU was restored, the conflict is considered to be settled.

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Library: recent


2017-02-15 23:57:45

Belarusian Review, Special Jewish Issue, 2016

format: .pdf

2015-01-20 18:10:50

Крывія, №34-35, сьнежань 2014

format: .pdf





2017-01-16 | The Photograph

2016-05-08 | The attitude toward Holocaust in the former Soviet Union and in modern Belarus

2016-04-25 | Chernobyl: A Personal Memoir

2015-12-10 | Chernobyl and Belarus



2015-12-06 | Predictable election in the shadow of the Nobel Prize

2015-05-15 | Censorship as a research subject and as a means of understanding postwar Soviet Belarus

2015-02-02 | Aleś Kraŭcevič: we should be friends with Russia through the border fence

2015-01-11 | Jewish Soldiers in World War II



2015-03-02 | Alexander Osipov: Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine still benefit from the Soviet system of diversity governance

2013-06-11 | Alena Makoŭskaja: Belarusians living abroad are strongest advocates of Belarus and its culture

2013-05-31 | Belarusian language banned in the Kontinental Hockey League

2013-05-26 | The 1995 Referendum on national symbols and official languages was not legitimate



2015-11-30 | Belarus’ Economic Slump

2014-09-21 | Georgian Agriculture: Effects of Association with the EU

2014-06-05 | Belarus: impact of the conflict in Ukraine

2013-08-24 | David Marples: Belarus needs to distinguish itself from Russia and Russian policies

Political science


2015-10-02 | Eastern Partnership initiative: five year results and future perspectives

2015-05-25 | Prolonging the Victory

2015-03-19 | Sergey Dolgopolov: Belarus and the EU close on in the economic sphere

2015-01-19 | Ivonka Survilla: mythologized history is the basis for Putin’s neo-Soviet rhetoric

Other domains


2015-11-23 | Searching for Belarusianness in the southern Pskov region

2015-11-12 | The Space: Between Silesia and Podlasie

2015-09-14 | The Cookbook as Political Statement: A Note on Two Belarusian Examples

2015-06-06 | Again about Skaryna in Padua: Attendees

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